When it comes to semantic generalization, the reverse keeps: the existing definition is an excellent subcase of the the latest

step 1.dos Semantic Relationships

After senses try understood (and you will of course they’re understood having a good level of confidence), the kind of relationship you to definitely is obtainable between the two should be created. The most common class of semantic interactions emerges regarding the culture out of historical semantics, that is, brand new vocabulary familiar with describe synchronic interactions anywhere between term meanings is actually simply the identical to the new code accustomed define diachronic transform out of definition. In the easiest instance, when the sense good is actually synchronically related to experience b from the metonymy, up coming a process out-of metonymy features acted diachronically to increase sense an inside sense b: diachronic systems from semasiological transform reappear synchronically once the semantic affairs among phrase definitions.

The new desktop computer while the kept facts, or perhaps the mouse plus the pointer, has actually a romance out of actual-globe connectedness which is usually grabbed of the idea of ‘contiguity

The latest five earliest products try specialization, generalization, metaphor, and you will metonymy (described here, out-of a beneficial diachronic angle, while the elements as opposed to synchronic affairs). When it comes to semantic specialty, the latest meaning was a constraint of your own dated meaning: the latest definition try an excellent subcase of the old. Classical examples of expertise was corn (in the first place a pay-label for everyone types of cereals, podpora chatiw now formal to help you ‘wheat’ for the The united kingdomt, so you’re able to ‘oats’ inside the Scotland, also to ‘maize’ in the usa), starve (swinging out-of ‘so you’re able to die’ to help you ‘so you can perish regarding hunger’), and you can queen (to start with ‘spouse, girl,’ now simply for ‘king’s wife, otherwise women sovereign’). Types of generalization was moonlight (mostly the new planet’s satellite, however, expanded to your world’s satellite), and you can French arriver (hence to begin with suggested ‘to reach the new river’s shore, so you can embank,’ but and that today represents ‘to arrive an excellent destination’ in general). There is lots from terminological version concerning specialization and generalization. ‘Restriction’ and you can ‘narrowing’ regarding definition equal ‘specialization,’ while ‘expansion,’ ‘schematization,’ and you will ‘broadening’ of definition equal ‘generalization.’ Along with, this new significance inside it can probably be said to amuse affairs out of taxonomical subordination otherwise superordination: during the good taxonomy (a forest-instance hierarchical group) off maxims, this new authoritative definition are subordinate for the original you to definitely, whereas the newest generalized definition is actually superordinate regarding the original.

For example specialty and you will generalization, it’s convenient and vintage introducing metaphor and you may metonymy together, while the dating isn’t as intimate like with new previous couples. (More on metaphor and you may metonymy observe within the area 1.6, “Abstract Metaphor and Metonymy.”) Metaphor will be allowed to be considering a love out-of resemblance between your dated together with the newest studying, and metonymy on a relationship away from contiguity. Most recent computers conditions output examples of each other systems. The latest pc of your own computer screen, for-instance, is not the same as the new desktop computer of one’s office dining table-apart from in the two cases, it is the space (a literal place in one circumstances, a virtual one in the other) where you status a number of products which your continuously have fun with otherwise you to urgently need desire. The machine desktop computer, quite simply, is not virtually a desktop from the modern experience, but it have a working resemblance to your new: the system studying try an effective metaphorical extension of new place of work furniture learning. Functional similarities and underlie metaphorical words including save, clipboard, file, folder, clipped, and you can insert. Mouse, in addition, is additionally metaphorically determined, but here, the fresh new metaphorical resemblance relates to shape in place of mode. However now consider an announcement with the impression that the desktop could keep you busy for another two weeks, otherwise you query out loud in which your own mouse moved when you’re looking to locate new pointer into monitor. In such instances, pc and you may mouse are used metonymically. Regarding the former circumstances, it is not the latest virtual place as such that’s related, nevertheless the products which is actually stored there. About latter instance, it isn’t this new mouse as a result (the point that you possess on your give) which you refer to, however the pointer into the monitor that is operated of the mouse. ‘ Whenever, as an instance, one drinks an entire bottles, that isn’t brand new package but simply their content material which can be consumed: container are often used to consider a specific kind of container, together with (spatially contiguous) belongings in that container. Whenever lexical semanticians believe that metonymical changes derive from contiguity, contiguity shouldn’t be know in a narrow sense once the it comes down in order to spatial proximity merely, however, so much more generally once the a broad name for various connectivity during the the newest spatial, temporary, or causal domain.

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